Initiatives v Oligarchy

Our Founders' Warning: “Every government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone. The people themselves are its only safe depositories.” (Thomas Jefferson)

How Does the Amendment Become Part of the Constitution?

This flowchart show is an overview of how the Amendment advances from first step to ratification:

Amendment advances are explained in a straightforward flowchart consisting of processing steps or activities (rectangular), decisions (diamonds), terminations (rounded rectangles), and arrows (flow lines).

It shows three basic paths:

  1. The best path is to combine the Constitutional Authority of the States with that of the People by use of State Referendums.
  2. A satisfactory and probably easier and faster path is to use State Initiatives to ensure State cooperation, followed by a Limited Article V Convention of the States.
  3. The Amendment process fails if less than 34 States apply to Congress or if less than 38 States ratify.

Amendment Advances from Start to Ratification